The urine color of normal people can vary from colorless to dark amber, which is mainly related to the acidity and alkalinity of urine and the concentration of pigment in urine. When excreted in vitro, the urine should be clear and transparent. After a period of time, it will become cloudy. This is mainly related to the precipitation of some solutes in urine or cell pollution, there is no foam in urine, there is no obvious odor. Under normal circumstances, the urine volume per day and night is about 1600 milliliters.
The main manifestations of abnormal urine volume are oliguria, polyuria and nocturia: oliguria refers to less than 400 milliliters of urine per day and night. If the urine volume of children is less than 0.8 milliliters/hour/kg of body weight, it also suggests oliguria; anuria refers to less than 50-100 milliliters of urine per day and night.
Oliguria or anuria is mainly seen in various causes of acute renal failure, including pre-renal, renal, and post-renal acute renal failure.
Polyuria refers to the amount of urine per day and night is greater than 3000 milliliters. It occurs after psychological or compulsive drinking; central diabetes insipidus caused by insufficient antidiuretic hormones secreted by pituitary gland; renal diabetes insipidus is also a common cause in adults.
The increase of nocturnal urine is the total urine volume at 6 p.m. to 6 o'clock in the morning. Increased urine volume due to heavy drinking after nightfall is not pathological in patients with chronic renal impairment.
Hematuria: it can be seen in urinary tract infection, renal parenchymal diseases and urinary tract tumors.
Increased foam in urine: more common in urine, such as proteinuria. Urine ammonia smell is common in urinary tract infection, and the aroma of fruit can be seen in diabetic ketoacidosis.
Abnormal urine color: a variety of diseases or drugs and food can cause changes in urine color. If rifampicin can cause red urine, hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria can cause red wine-colored urine, lymphatic diseases can cause chyluria, like rice soup or rice wash water or milk white.
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